Dr Caroline Norma

Dr Caroline Norma

HDR Supervisor

Caroline Norma is a Senior Research Fellow at RMIT University. Her research areas include Japanese History, Japanese interpreting and translation, women's history and feminist studies, human rights, the history of prostitution, trade and migration. In January 2017, Norma was awarded the Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Award. Norma is a member of the Japan Studies Association of Australia and Asian Studies Association of Australia. 


PhD (Japanese History) (Asia Institute, University of Melbourne) 2011

MA (Japanese History) (Asia Institute, University of Melbourne) 2006

MA (Japanese interpreting and translation) (Queensland University) 2003

BA/BBus (Japanese and Economics) (Swinburne University) 2000


  • 2018
    • Norma, C., (2018). Comfort women and post-occupation corporate Japan. Routledge, London; New York.
  • 2016
    • Norma, C., & Tankard M (eds) (2016). Prostitution narratives: stories from the sex trade. Spinifex Press, North Geelong.
  • 2015
    • Norma, C., (2015). Japanese comfort women and sexual slavery during the China and Pacific wars.. London: Bloomsbury.
  • 2014
    • Mulayim, S., Miranda Lai, M., Norma, C., (2014). Police investigative interviews and interpreting context, challenges, and strategies.. CRC Press; London.

Book Chapter

  • 2017
    • Norma, C. (2017). Globalization and prostitution In Farazmand, A., Global encyclopedia of public administration, public policy, and governance (pp. 1-11). Springer, New York.
    • Norma, C. (2017). Abolitionism in the history of the transnational "justice for comfort women" movement in Japan and South Korea In Finney P., Remembering the Second World War (pp. 115-139). London: Routledge.
  • 2016
    • Norma, C., (2016). Historical justice for wartime enslaved women In Akira, M., ‘Ianfu’ mondai no genzai: ‘Pak Yuha genshou’ to chishikijin (pp. ). Tokyo, 31Shobou.
    • Norma, C., (2016). Child Prostitution In , The Wiley Blackwell encyclopedia of gender and sexuality studies (pp. 1-5). Wiley Blackwell, New Jersey,.
  • 2015
    • Norma, C., (2015). Catharine MacKinnon in Japanese: towards a radical feminist theory of translation' In , Multiple translation communities in contemporary Japan (pp. 79-98). Routledge, New York.
    • Norma, C., (2015). 'A human right to prostitute others?: Amnesty International and the privileging of the male orgasm' In Kiraly, M. & Tyler, M., Freedom fallacy: the limits of liberal feminism (pp. ). Connor Court Publishing, Melbourne..

Journal Article

  • 2018
    • Yamamoto, Y, Norma, C., Dep Weerasinghe, R., (2018). Consumer involvement in Japanese pornography production. Dignity, Vol 3, no. 2 1-18.
    • Norma, C. (2018). Shiori Ito's "Black Box" Case Japan begins to be exposed to the severe glance of the world. Joukyou, July 2018.
  • 2016
    • Norma, C. & Street, T. (2016). 'Sex tourists in their own country: digital media advertising of Asian women by the Australian sex industry'. Gender, Technology and Development, Vol. 20, No. 3 1-27.
    • Norma, C and Garcia-Caro, O. (2016). Gender problems in the practice of professional interpreters assisting migrant women in Australia: a theoretical case for feminist education. Violence Against Women, Vol. 22, No. 11 1305-1325.
  • 2014
    • Norma, C. (2014). Demand from abroad: Japanese involvement in the 1970s development of the Korean sex industry’. Journal of Korean Studies, Vol 19, No. 2 399-428.

Scholarship Publications

Popular Article

  • 2016
    • Norma, C. (2016). East Asia’s pornography trade and abuse of human rights. East Asia Forum: Economics, Politics and Public Policy in East Asia and the Pacific, July 8. | External link

Professional Memberships

Asian Studies Association of Australia (since None)

Japan Studies Association of Australia (since None)

Current Supervision

  • Current
    • Larin, T., Unknown (Doctoral Thesis)
    • Roper, C., Unknown (Doctoral Thesis)
    • Weiss, C., Unknown (Doctoral Thesis)

Completed Supervision

  • 2018
    • Ahsani, N., Unknown (Doctoral Thesis), 2018
  • 2017
    • Lai, M., Unknown (Doctoral Thesis), 2017
  • 2016
    • Phelan, K., Unknown (Doctoral Thesis), 2016

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